Random Thoughts: A Few Thoughts on Entrepreneurial Activism

I was involved in organizing a conference in Paris once. It was about technology and refugees. At some point, a refugee entrepreneur on the main stage, a Syrian tech entrepreneur, tried to explain how starting a business was the act of heroic activism for both him and his companions.

The audience from the Western world was first in shock, a positive, empathetic one. Contexts are so different. Building companies in societies ripped by the war is truly noble and so important and consequential for the society.

A few perspectives to think about

First, all businesses pay taxes. Taxes are then being redistributed. That’s the money that goes for homeless people, single moms etc. It’s better to have a bigger budget, which is a consequence of entrepreneurial and business activities. More money for any important cause.

Second, businesses employ people. Salaries pay for new skills and homes, sports for kids, and everything in between. Also taxed and put back into the economy and society.

Third, financially empowered people, both owners and employees can care about others. Close ones first, family and friends, but society at large as well.

Unintended consequences are so beautiful. 

The most frightening comment section that I ever read through was one on Startit’s website, the national portal for IT entrepreneurship in Serbia. The article debated whether programmers who earn several times more money than the rest of the Serbian proletariat, choose long-term career development plans over pure cash, arguing for the former.

The author was fiercely attacked in the comments section. Why? Some programmers in the heated texting arguments shared their personal stories. The situation is so awful amongst their loved ones that many (!) of them are actually funding 3-6 other people, namely old parents, unemployed brothers and sisters, aunts.. Every penny counts.

Fourth, all businesses solve problems, that’s why they exist. That’s a value for society. Entrepreneurship is a problem-solving discipline. Want to get rich? Solve the problem the most people have. The more pressing the problem, the bigger the reward. That’s ok!

From a macro perspective, indeed, a better economy equals better everything. 

Also, people tend to donate. If they can, meaning either create something or are paid well. It’s actually a pretty loved hobby. The world is horrible, but it isn’t that bad.

The opposition between entrepreneurship/business and activism is false so many times.

Random Thoughts: “Work it out mate, we’re in the wrong F**** Game”

Maybe it’s better to ask what is the game you’re playing instead of other questions when meeting a new person?

One of the coolest movie openings, “Layer Cake”:

Do not worry, this post isn’t about drugs and the drug business. 

Different Games, different everything

It’s impossible to know the future, but it’s highly recommended to imagine it from time to time and base life decisions on that. The prices are too high.

Let’s play around with imaginary Jason fella for a bit.

If he marries Jenny, he will become a mayor, and then Senator, and then a Presidential candidate. It’s because Jenny is understanding, supportive, and believes in him. They are both driven by meaningful societal change.

If he moved to Florida with his best student mate John when he was 21, he would run a successful business at a 20 million annual run rate in just 3 years. That’s because John was his business soul mate. 

If he stopped hanging out with those jerks when he was 16, he would finish university and wouldn’t overdose before he turned 30.

All of the potential scenarios above – his life, actually – are the consequences of decisions he has or hasn’t made. And all of them could have happened if he had chosen differently. 

I’ll do a short reflection on my 2 months long political career. It wasn’t a plan, although I was always political, in a sense that I cared and thought about society a lot.

How did I end up in that game? I rented an apartment in Belgrade city center with a few friends because we wanted to experiment with different business ideas. We wanted to have a nest for it. 

A little more context: a different political candidate emerges. He talks about the venture capital industry because he was a venture-backed startup CEO. He sounds and acts reasonable, has European experience, some level of success in Canada and the USA, American pragmatism. A different persona compared to the others in Serbian politics.

Anyway, the apartment we decided to rent was one of the first places where signatures for his candidacy were being collected. I didn’t know that would happen, it was so fast. A renting pal decided to help with candidacy literally the day before. I was surprised to see so many random people in the apartment that evening.

I soon realized that all the people who were there signing the necessary support documents were so decent. I had casual chats about psychedelic rock music and stuff like that. I was amazed! Look like my tribe?

At some point, I was asked: “Hey, would you help with getting signatures in Pancevo?”

Sure, why not. 

I gathered 30 people in my hometown of Pancevo. Candidacy approved, so let’s campaign. It was such an incredible and valuable experience, but let’s leave that for some other time.

The campaign was over, so I decided to conduct some serious thinking. 

First, I was sick of all the people from other political parties I ran across during the campaign. Bad people. Second, I have realized that serious politics – it’s immoral to do it any other way – is a 24/7 type of deal. No time to learn, grow or do any other meaningful things.

The main reason why I’ve decided to proactively step down and not continue was the realization that it would eventually make me a worse person and that I would need to sacrifice my whole current life for it. It’s not that I cared that much. Plus, that would keep me localized, which felt claustrophobic.

Let’s take a look at an entrepreneurship example.

Nikola thinks of starting something of his own.

Option #1 is starting a little cafe. It’s a small town, the market is tiny. Option #2 is a service-oriented web business conducted online, utilizing his ability to gather quality people and his decent web development skills. Option #3 is playing as a one-man band, as a premium freelancer.

How might have those unfolded?

He didn’t do the math. He chose option #1 and made a mistake. He didn’t envision all the little annoyances, including constant inspections and managing so many people, and he definitely hasn’t done any substantial financial projections.

Had he gone with option 3 he would have earned 5 times more a month than he made with his cafe in profits.

How to think about the Game(s) (of Life)

You don’t know, as I don’t know, and as no one actually can know. We need to do the research, talk with people, learn from them, think about it deeply and experience it first-hand.

Choosing which game to play, meaning where to invest time and energy is one the most important things in life.

Have in mind that the whole life, as in the number of waking hours and minutes, in most cases, is mostly two things: work and love/partnership. Would that mean that those two are the most important things in life? If you spend that much time working, then choose wisely where to work. And, first of all, the work itself. 

Anyway, are there any frameworks and techniques for this? 

I really liked Julian’s article on how to choose what you should be working on.  It’s my favorite article on this topic. I would highly recommend it.

Analyzing and proper research always go far. Think about possible options, through the lens of the people who are already there. How do their days look? How much do they earn? Talk with them. Online. Does it sound inspiring? Luckily, all of this is on the Web.

I also really liked this article

“So, instead of thinking through what we wanted our perfect day to look like, we thought about the worst day imaginable and how to avoid it. We inverted and came up with what we call Anti-Goals.”

Interesting approach. 

It’s incredible how we forget to do the most logical thing in the world, which is to step back and look at the bigger picture. “Take a step back and look at the bigger picture.”

Regular assessments, by all means, help. This works in career, love, any type of relationship. “Does it feel right? Why not? What should I change?”Self-awareness rocks!

I often opt for rationalism and objectivism although I do not fully agree with the philosophy developed by Ayn Rand.

Random Thoughts: Internet and AI Equality

Imagine that you are a CEO or a hiring manager of a company named XYU. You are about to choose from two candidates.

The first one is an Ivy League computer science graduate, with a recent machine learning doctorate. The second one is a random kid from Romania, a self-starter with just a high school diploma. The first spent the last five years working on the latest AI technology in MIT’s lab. The second spent the last 3 doing the same but on its own research agenda, starting from scratch while spending 8 hours every day working a random daily job to feed his family. The first was solely focused on his thesis. The second did all the advanced work while renting 8 hours of his life 5 days a week. Surprisingly, Romanian self-started has a better portfolio and demonstrates more innovative thinking in the interview.

Both PhD-s. The first was stamped by the prestigious institution. The second? “Poor, hungry and determined”.

That’s the Internet.

Internet and Equality

The Internet made the world the most equal ever.

The most obvious recent big thing:

“Permanently divorcing physical location from economic opportunity gives us a real shot at radically expanding the number of good jobs in the world while also dramatically improving quality of life for millions, or billions, of people.” 

https://future.a16z.com/technology-saves-the-world/ 

The world is still insanely inequal. Thankfully, so many great people are working on it. Hopefully, the world will be a much better place soon. Technology is what makes the world more equal. 

AI and Equality

We are still early in the AI game. It’s interesting to think about what advanced AI can do for equality building on the top of the world wide web.

I like this theory that we already are some sort of cyborgs. We use Google in so many gorgeous ways, so extensively that it is part of our core, almost physical beings. We are always connected to the Internet and enhance our abilities by it, intuitively. Google knows what to give us, and it does it so fast. Some kind of intelligence, right, that has so deeply become part of our instincts.

Let’s imagine an even brighter future.

Education. The Internet made it free. For the first time in human history, almost any knowledge is free of charge. Learning with others and mentors is more effective though. Imagine personalized AI tutors. What if we can build conversational AIs that can teach us things we would like to learn, and guide us along the whole way? What if that’s the most effective way to learn? Imagine every kid having a personalized AI mentor.

Life itself. We might extend our lifespan soon. Also, and more importantly, we might end a lot of chronic and other diseases, saving lives of millions every year, particularly of those in marginalized communities and positions. There’s a very high probability that some kind of AI will charge these breakthrough, life-saving and life extension achievements, directly or indirectly.

AI guardian angels”. I like this notion. Take for example the epidemic of loneliness and the cost of psychological help. AI beings might be there to provide help when there’s no one else. 

Paths. Life used to be so confusing for the vast majority of the worldwide population, so – inequal. Access to knowledge and routes to XYZ were hidden in closed networks. Class societies. The open Internet democratized it, revolutionizing societies at scale. Now imagine an AI layer on top of it. A personal assistant that can sketch your different paths, and how and where they lead. 

Language. If you know English well you are a few years ahead. Real-time translation can break down many barriers, access and learning being one of the first serious use cases. 

Rule of Law. We are equal on paper, but in reality, there are racisms in this world, ethnic and other discriminations, violence, biases, corruption… All of these affect the underprivileged much more. AI might. Who’s building “AI for Justice“? Things like “algorithmic bias patrol”, ” corruption AI officers” and things like that?

Random Thoughts: How Deep is Their Propaganda? A Few Experiences from Serbia

Propaganda is a serious and dangerous phenomenon. It’s arguably even natural to a certain point, but engineering people’s realities, ruthlessly, at scale, is the source of so many evils.  

Propaganda, dissemination of information—facts, arguments, rumours, half-truths, or lies—to influence public opinion.

Serbia in the 1990s

Slobodan Milošević was in charge of Serbia in the late 20th century. Adored by contemporaries and regional leaders for his intelligence although in battles with them, his country was bleeding and suffering.

We were in wars, experienced hyperinflations, we were poor with no bread and electricity, and we were bombed when millions were dancing for freedom on the streets of Berlin, and so many other terrible things, but the vast majority of people still truly loved him. Why? How is that even possible?

How deep was his propaganda? 

I would argue deeper than most of the lovers connect. It’s a one on one relationship of the highest grade, for a decade. Almost impossible to break up. 

Imagine having the same face and voice 10, 20, 30 times a day, relentlessly repeating the same story over and over again.  All the political others are portrayed as thieves, rapists, drug dealers, national traitors.. you know what’s in that folder. Repeated millions of times. Non-stop.

At some point he wasn’t a political option, that’s a separate debate.

In an interesting thought experiment, and I would argue that it’s true, people would still vote for him. That’s so sad. It’s so deep and profound.

It’s also interesting to think about potential moments of personal revelations of those previously brainwashed to the maximum. I believe it’s hard to admit to yourself that you were so naive. Like Fox Mulder, “you want to believe”. Egos are so fragile. 

Anyway, the propaganda-intimacy connection with millions of people, especially older ones who are staring at TV screens the whole day is: forever. Yep, they would probably vote for him whatever happens. Until they die. He was so deep in their minds, hearts, unconsciousness, bones, atoms, and kidneys.

So sad.

Monstrosity!

Serbia today

Today, Serbia is ruled by Aleksandar Vučić who sets and controls the narrative and messes with the minds of millions of people, every day, all day.

Methodology and tactics are the same. Let me brainwash you every day, meaning every morning, lunchtime, evening and before going to bed, and in between, whenever you forget about me and my heroic but intimate story. 

It’s a different era, so social media is part of the operation too.

Human bots are spreading the narrative. They control the news feed!

How do those bot networks work? They’re not programmed. They are people, thousands of them. Don’t want to share it? You’re fired! They coordinate and track their actions using advanced software solutions and military-style organization.

I was shocked to find out that some of my random acquaintances are also part of the human bot network. Some of them would do what is requested and then delete their posts because they were ashamed. Good, some shame, and hence humanity, is still there. I accidentally spotted this several times. 

Is there a way out?

Holy cow, I can’t even start to analyze North Korea for example.

How to get out? Seriously, how?

Random Thoughts: Personal Geography and Similar Boundaries

Act 1: Birth and Growing Up

You’re born at a very specific location, we can reasonably assume in the closest local hospital, in a random village or city. It’s random, in a sense that you haven’t chosen your parents, nor the location. Lottery. That’s how your life begins. That’s how all of us start.  Hello, world!

Your parents, and perhaps their parents, in some cases nannies and other close family members or parent’s dear friends, are your whole world for a while. You breathe, cry, learn to walk, always with and around them. Your life space is very tight!

You first start playing in someone’s arms, then in your little crib, and then in the whole house. Then yard if your family has it. Life space increases gradually. 

Your first friends are those who live nearby, a few neighborhood houses and streets. Your hood. You expand, both geographically and socially. First, it was counted in meters, but now it’s kilometers. There’s still a strong parental oversight.

If you are not homeschooled, which probably isn’t the case if you’re not born in the US, or constantly moved around by hyper-traveling parents, you start to genuinely socialize in kindergarten and primary school. Usually, it’s the nearest one. Your circle grows! 

And then when you grow up a little more, you choose a high school. Some decisions start to emerge. Is it the general type of the school, or a more focused one? Still kilometers, maybe tens of them, with occasional visits to other cities and casual outer world impressions. 

It’s not about your personality, interests, or anything about yourself. It’s about the location. The location has a colossal, crucial effect on life and acts as one of the key determinants of your being.  

If wealthy or talented, or just informed early enough, this is still mostly about your parents’ thinking though, you might end up in a high school that is abroad. In most cases, however, it’s a given. Whatever the schooling system algorithm decides. It’s about location. 

You slowly start to wander around.  

Act 2: Expansions

And then, you decide (what) to study. This is more about you, or if you are unlucky and caged by your parents’ (unfulfilled) ambitions, your parents’ choice. But still, your geography of life changes dramatically.

In this expansion phase, you encounter plenty of new people from different walks of life, cultures, diverse accents…  and different geographies. You are with like-minded people, for the first time in your life, it’s about interests and passions. And geographies merge. 

This is the most common scenario, it’s definitely not everybody’s route. Let’s stick with it for the sake of the argument. 

Your network broadens. You might even move to another city, which is especially interesting if you are coming from a small town.

The world is made of networks.  All you know, you hear from someone, either in physical reality or online. All the opportunities spread through networks as well. Also, unconscious mimicry is a serious thing. You mimic those you spend time with.

Your network of people, places and experiences, continues to flourish. 

It’s probably smart to start working and be as socially (pro)active as early as possible. Understanding of the world, and yourself consequently, happens earlier. 

Getting out of the familiar social topology is enhancing.

Act 3: Broadening the Network (and Horizons)

I was so fascinated with it a year or two ago. Let me explain.

I started analyzing some of my friends and the ways they “end”/“close” their lives at some point, too early. Nothing against it, just an observation, and how I want to go against it. People marry people from their cities, the ones they met 20 years ago, without thinking of stepping outside. The pool of possible options, if you think about it, is very small. Friendships are also closed, strong like concrete. There’s certainly some beauty in it. Life-long friends are romantic, but it’s also a cage in this context if the birth lottery isn’t ever questioned. It’s claustrophobic!

Anyway, why stop? If life is gradually unfolding in new territories, why not go further?

I write “Internet” with a capital “I” because I believe it’s literally the best thing ever. 

Imagine the earliest internet users for a second, when you needed to go through never-ending sound terror before connecting online. Imagine Alpha geeks. And their revelations when they figured out that space/time can be easily overcome and that they aren’t so freaky and alone after all. Word of wonders. Human beings, sharing whatever passion you might have.

Research on how the Internet is changing dating and societies blew my mind a few years ago. This is the link.

I did Corona Love Stories when Covid-19 hit, a special publishing side-project for people in long-distance relationships. We published countless stories about long-distance couples, how they met, fought travel bans and anxiety, and everything in between. Some of the experiences were so fascinating. 

Act 4: What do you want to do with your life?

You’re kind of set up. You hopefully have at least 50 or more years to do whatever you want. Why stop? Why settle down? Why put chips down when it’s finally your turn?

This is the most interesting and productive phase. You’re experienced and wise enough, independent, and all the other crucial necessities.

Maybe I am hardcore here or I am just tripping, but it would be so sad not to explore every corner of the world. Or at least as much money/time allows.

What will our grand-grand-children find the silliest about us?

Just 200 or so years ago, a widely unquestionable fact (in the Western world) was that women have smaller brains, it was a “scientific fact”, so they weren’t allowed to decide on the future as men and vote. Slavery also used to be perfectly fine not that long ago. More in the past and humans are massively knifing each other, blood on their hands, literally. We find it absurd from our today’s ethical standards. Riding on that rationale, it’s reasonable to ask ourselves: what will our grand-grand-children find the silliest about us?

Times, They Are Changing…

It’s kind of obvious, isn’t it? We change over time, as species, civilization, and societies, and the whole history is that wavy series of consecutive transformations. In some abstract terms, we all get it, it’s logical – the change is constant – but I don’t think we really get it. Or at least how profound this underlying truth is, and how far-reaching and empowering consequences are when it’s taken as one of the first assumptions about the world.

I fell deep into this thinking spiral in 2012 when I attended year-long feminism studies. The program was composed of four mini-courses. The most interesting of them was the one on Love. Love is always THE theme, and this course approached it in a very interesting way. It was questioning it from the historical perspective, exploring how probably the most familiar thing in the world has been changing over time. It meant different things in different eras. Romantic love, for example, didn’t exist in the far past. In Ancient Greece, the ultimate love relationship was between two men, one older and one younger. Kinky! Marriage, a monogamous one, an association that pops up as the first association to most today, is the product of a specific historical environment. It’s not the institution that was here forever. Just like Love, all the other most important concepts don’t transcend history. Everything was different and will probably be different in the future, even the core things. It was a big discovery for me and it has inspired thinking about many different phenomena from that perspective.

Then I read this great book, written by one of the directors of the aforementioned studies and found out how, and why, the political role of women has been changing over time. I was definitely hooked on that approach to reality!

Few Constructs to Think About As a Start

Let’s take a look at a few things that seem eternal to most at first. They look as if they’re here forever whilst they are just constructs, things that will eventually notoriously change in the future.

Nations. The world is made of nations, they’re sovereign, run territories, and still act as primary elements of the World Order. National leaders decide the future of the world through institutions such as the UN and other international formations, and bilaterally. Nations have nukes. They control war and peace. Just a hundred years long jump into the past and four great empires implode after World War I.

The most interesting detail in this framework of nations I accidentally stumbled upon was the fact that the early French republic had a very silly issue to resolve: no unified, standardized, common language. France is one of the big nations, isn’t it? French are protecting their language whenever they can, airports being just one front of the battle for its great nation. The public education system, which did not exist before, we are talking about centuries ago, contributed essentially to the creation of Frenchness. This proud nation was such a mess from nationalist perspective early on. 

Learning. I mean spread and acquisition of knowledge. Not so long ago, before the printing press, you could learn only by speaking to another human being. You couldn’t fly to another country, or take the bus or the rail, the travel industry almost did not exist, and the world was mostly static. Schools were not mandatory, people did not know how to read. Now you use Google, you don’t even have to click, you can speak, machines are starting to understand voice and the web is becoming much more than text. Is the future Matrix style, where you just decide to “install” a ton of knowledge or skills directly into your brain? 

What’s OK and what isn’t. One of the most brilliants minds ever, the guy who started the field of artificial intelligence, and computer science, was queer. The same guy, named Alan Turing, the story goes, also contributed to victory in World War II outsmarting the enemy with his mathematical genius. That didn’t save him from his own government; he killed himself because of the hormonal therapy pressure he was forced to take but couldn’t handle. It’s nicely portrayed in The Imitation Game. That’s just slightly more than 50 years ago, in the United Kingdom, one of today’s most liberal and open societies. It was “forbidden” to be queer, there was a rule, a procedure even, to change it. Speaking of London, one of the books that got me thinking a lot about how shitty the world was is “Down and Out in Paris and London”, by George Orwell. You don’t have anywhere to sleep? No, you can’t even sit here. Keep walking… Underage kids working 18 hours a day, you can read Emil Zola. Human rights?

Time. It’s 2020 AD. AD, meaning after Christ, the most influential historical (and fictional at the same!) figure in history. Clearly, people were not understanding the concept of time in the same way before Jesus. Is our time accounting system in place the best one? Can we improve it? What if “hours” are a stupid way to measure time? Days seem logical though, do they follow the natural cycles and the sun?

Times, They Are Accelerating…

Times, it seems, are changing. It seems that they are also accelerating. And all of what we see today indicates that the 21st century is going to be the wildest of all the centuries so far. The pace of change is – accelerating.

The strongest force for the explosion of change, many historians would point out, is the Scientific Revolution which led to the Industrial Age and exponential wealth. Without machines and technological innovations, one person could solely produce with their time and resources.

People massively move to cities. They live longer and they start to dress differently. A century or two later, they are listening to weird computer sounds, taking pills, and dancing all night. On their way to the school or work, to the fancy designed office space instead of the factory, they stare at their pocket devices and exchange emotional and operational signals with other human beings on other continents, all in parallel. 

In this century we are exploring space further, bioengineering our bodies, that longevity optimism has some truth to it, and we are building artificial agents and algorithms that are improving large parts of our lives. Machines have never been smarter. And there has never been more scientists – those who seek truths, as a profession, paid to question, explore and improve everything around us.

        https://futureoflife.org/2015/11/05/90-of-all-the-scientists-that-ever-lived-are-alive-today/

Everyone, even countries that aren’t that innovation savvy traditionally, understand the business – and political advantage – of innovations, hence the funding is skyrocketing as well. Everything accelerates as a consequence.

This illustration is also interesting:

          https://futureoflife.org/2015/11/05/90-of-all-the-scientists-that-ever-lived-are-alive-today/

Just a Few Candidates To Think About First

Let’s go back to our initial question. What will our grand-grand-children find the silliest about us?

I don’t have the answers and am not a prophet, and the point of this writing is just to inflame thinking and, hopefully, inspire some productive imagination. I’ll try to sketch a few examples focusing on a) things that I think about the most and b) things that have been transformed the most in the last few centuries or more. You can, and should, continue the list. What would you like to investigate? 

Democracy

It’s a Greek thing. There weren’t any democracies before, we were told at our political science studies, they were no free men, and definitely no free women. You add two greek words – demos + kratos – and you get a very interesting conceptual framework to think about how to organize and govern societies.

The first versions of it were not for all; far from it. Do you know how much of the general population –  “free men” – meant in version 1.0 of democracy in Greece? Did you know that women were first granted the right to vote in New Zealand in 1897? Or that you couldn’t vote if you were not earning more than a certain threshold for a very long time? Did you know that some people of color de facto didn’t have the right to vote in the US, the home of democracy and its biggest and most vocal global advocate, just fifty or so years ago?

As population and generations change and digital technologies become even more imminent, we can expect radical changes in the way we govern ourselves. What if AI takes over? If you knew for sure that algorithm could be better than your mortal city fellow, would you decide it should be in charge? Would it be rational? What if democracy was just a bulshit matra, a totally ineffective way to organize ourselves collectively? Because it leads to World War 3 and human extinction? On the other hand, it’s total nonsense to just have a say (vote) just once in 4 years. While it was rational, complicated and costly to organize in the early days of representative democracy, times, they are changing. We have the necessary technologies as of this moment, or we will have them soon. Why not be more active, at least with issues you care about most and ones that directly affect you? We have those supercomputers in our pockets, why not make collective decisions in ways that are more rational?

Office and how we work

This one is easy because it’s already happening. Facebook: remote forever. Coinbase: remote forever. Twitter: remote forever. Covid-19 hit hard and the whole world went remote. Any knowledge work, it’s official, can be done online.

It’s about space and time constraints. If we take the location out of the equation, equality and opportunities spread worldwide. Companies can hire top talent from a much bigger, global pool. Individuals from all over the world can overcome their impossible small markets and work with the best in the world, or with those who are a much better fit. The overall consequence is that the whole world economy becomes much better optimized leading to better outcomes for society.  

Let’s think about the office for a second.

First, be quiet. Don’t move. Others are trying to focus. And dress accordingly!

You wake up groggy a few hours before work because you can’t afford to live in the city center, put on your office clothes, walk to station number one, and then to the second one. Then another one. Then walk. Oh, finally!  

The total of 2-3 hours of commute every day is both unnecessary and unreasonable. Plus, it’s not just a commute. Some preparation is always required, and when it’s done and you open the door of your house, you can’t just shift to a peaceful state of mind. Too much time is wasted. It’s silly.

I love to stand, walk and sometimes even lay in the bed while I work. After 5 remote years, I am still searching for the best personal productivity setting. I also love to walk and discuss. The hack was to kill the video when in meetings. You both better hear because your focus is the bigger and better focus if that’s your thing. Some people might be more productive in offices. Some aren’t. 

Also, “9 to 5” might also be a stupid arrangement, flexible work is much more natural. Due to technology, everything can be flexible. I would argue, humane as well.

Fast forward 10, 20 or 30 years in the future.

Estonian experiments of “e-Residency” are a common thing. International cooperation and interoperability make digital flows lightning fast.

Traveling around the world should be much faster. You should be probably able to just hop across the ocean. Virtual experiences and advanced virtual tools might make the meetings in person obsolete. Bye-bye space restraints!

All of this is liberating. Globalization, as it should be. Legal will probably follow. A change is one essential aspect of life – work –  drives so many changes, namely legal, migrations, architecture, equality… Did you know that spending more time in nature extends life? Would people move to Meditation? Asia? Would they prefer to spend 6 months at the seaside? Which countries will benefit the most? 

Countries are even now adjusting their immigration policies to welcome digital nomads. You can get a self-employed or freelancing visa anywhere in Europe even now. The bureaucratic procedures to get them will be streamlined in the future. I assume the whole process could be done in minutes instead of heaving months of headaches. Blockchain global infrastructures in the background? 

Jobs of the future are a whole another discussion. A very important one for policy-makers, builders and all of us, individually. 

Let’s Embrace – and Nudge/Create – the Future

Some things, a lot of them, are given, and that’s Reality. However, as everything written above shows, the change is not just possible, it’s inevitable. That means that we can influence the future, as many of our brave ancestors already did. It’s just much easier for us today. Thousands of times easier.

Let’s take a look at one very interesting – and inspiring – personal revelation:

             

This perspective is highly empowering.

It’s OK and even recommended to think from long-term perspectives, to be brave and trust in a brighter future by trying to create it. All the changes start with lunatics and blurry dreams.

I will close this writing with one short post, to boost morale even further.  Stripe founder, Patrick Collison, wrote this inspiring short article on magnificent projects that were built really fast. 

Random Thoughts: Optimization Problem or How to Get Whatever you Want

I think a lot about “optimization” recently. How much (and fast) can you optimize your life and make your personal reality closer to what you desire? 

Desires and formulas that work

For example, how can you optimize something like this:

                REMOTE (ability to be wherever you want anytime you want) 

+

 > 5-10K/month

If you’re nailing your skill (any knowledge work), it actually shouldn’t be that hard. Let’s go through it together?

The initial set of questions:

How many skills pay more than 5k and can be sold online?
How many jobs are there? Trends for the next 2, 3, and 5 years?

The second set of questions: 

Who are those people earning?
How can they be contacted?

Voila. Enough for a start. Reverse engineer the process, an approach that I am fond of recently. If X worked for thousands of Y, there’s a very high probability it might work for you too.  

The case that is extremely popular these days: how can you optimize (engineer) your financial independence? Think about it: it’s a generational thing. If you have or plan to have children, this is also for them. Being truly antifragile.

The same method works for literally anything.

The World Wide Web!

It’s so cool. Today we (can) have all the information we need. We can find out whatever we want and need –  for free. Even if it’s not already online, people are. And people are not that bad after all. They respond to cold emails and messages. Anyone who has ever tried knows that. Google! Google makes us superhumans. It’s ridiculous how much of everything we need is a search problem. It’s so wonderful how much there is on random blogs, forums, podcasts, and all the Reddits of the world. Interested in any big tech position? Probably already told in an efficient way on some obscure Youtube channel. Search is a superskill.

If the path is easy to find, analyze and understand, and then learn from it and replicate in an authentic, remixed manner, then the main question is,  “What do you want, and are you ready to get there?”

If all the paths are there, transparent as blue sky, what is the problem?

Asking yourself what you want and then defining the personal route to get there based on research isn’t easy.  Of course, putting in the work consistently for months and years is even harder. Want to live desired reality? That’s the price. You can always choose the ride you enjoy though. 

Bias to action is good!

A closer look at AI-powered governments

Who would imagine that people – even the elderly or those with no knowledge about computers – would vote over this quirky new thing called the Internet 30 years ago? It’s already more than a decade-long practice in Estonia. Thirty years around the corner, today’s government practices would probably seem and feel archaic, even prehistoric. What can we expect of the future government the day after tomorrow, having in mind the Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies and what’s already been cooking?

Last September, I had the opportunity to learn about the Estonian digital state miracle directly from those who are at the forefront of the art and practice of digital government, experimenting audaciously in directions often still unimaginable to the rest of the world. Champions were sharing their experiences, strategies, and some tips. This tiny and super innovative Baltic country invented and implemented something like a blockchain before Bitcoin was even invented, a distributed database technology that is one the of main ingredients of glorious e-Estonia. One thought that emerged from the discussion with the participants clinged in the air, “People hate to interact with the government, it would be ideal to eliminate that contact!”. It’s not just waiting in lines and wasted mornings, but also the fact that it’s not necessary. In a perfect world, people would receive public services from the comfort of their homes with a single click done in milliseconds, and they would prefer this option to the traditional one. Next (or current?), “digital native” generations have different expectations of any old-fashioned bureaucracy systems. What would they expect – and demand – from a 2050 government and public administration?

Recent advances in digital technologies and their ample applications in our everyday lives are making the world a much different place. The speed of transformation, at least with “software is eating the world, is both deepening and accelerating. This article will focus on the use of AI in government and public services.

AI technologies 101

Unsplash / Franki Chamaki

We are still far from the fantasied moment when machine intelligence surpasses human intelligence in all areas, but we often don’t understand that different AI systems are all already at our fingertips and all over our lives and that we can’t imagine a life without them even today.

When we “google”, the system is smart enough to read our intent and give us what we need in instant returns. When we use “Google maps”, the search algorithm is smart enough to provide us with the optimal route. We don’t see and know countless parameters analyzed in the background. That’s AI. A bunch of data points and advanced algorithms that use a ton of data to solve a particular problem, from winning a chess game to helping us flawlessly navigate the web and streets of the city we are in.

Say chess, where a machine, a computer program, can test the effectiveness of thousands of next moves while you consider which figure to move, and beat the best chess players in the world with ease. IBM’s Deep Blue AI crushed Gary Kasparov in 1997. Very narrow, but spectacular intelligence.

AI is in our phones. How else could our night photos be so beautiful? Algorithms make them nicer. How else could a phone be so much better than our eyes? New smartphones come with camera algorithms that make our photos better than ever before. They recognize faces, our location, or the position of the sun, so we don’t need to adjust settings manually. We can also speak with our phones and computers. Iphone users talk to Siri, while all Android users use Google’s voice digital assistants. You can also have conversations with Amazon’s Alexa, a home assistant you can ask about the weather next Thursday. This is called speech recognition. We can also chat with AI systems. The technique is called natural language processing, in which case computers understand natural language.

AI is in gaming, where it controls agents we fight with. It’s in finance, where it can rate our creditworthiness in minutes. In China, which seems ahead of the West in this, China’s mobile banks offer 1-second loan decisions. Not only that AI made the process lightning-fast, but it also made it possible for ordinary people and small business owners to gain access to banking that was much harder or even impossible before.

AI is a “digital beast”. When it encounters physical reality, it first digitizes it. “Computer vision is a field of AI that trains computers to interpret and understand the visual world.” Cameras on the street first record what’s happening, identify and classify objects in the video, and then, say, recognize people in it using facial recognition. The algorithm goes through existing databases of faces and recognizes identities by the process of matching. This is potentially great for public safety but also very troublesome for privacy and control. The same tech is powering stores of the future, like in Amazon Go videos.

One of the next big things are autonomous, self-driving cars (cars that drive without humans at steering wheels). While still not there fully – city drives without any human intervention – many experts agree that it will happen in the next several years. That’s AI, and it will be the biggest change in transportation history. You could easily visualize robo taxis, something that Elon Musk and Tesla are already promising; You buy a car, and rent it as a robo taxi when you don’t drive it, and earn while you sleep.

AI is (already) everywhere. Some even call it new electricity precisely because of that. Whilst artificial in nature, it’s arguable that AI systems are – when designed right, using a so-called “human-centered design” – also very humane. Their purpose, among other things, is to free humans from unnecessary repetitive and boring tasks, and enhance human potential.

AI is also already in the government in many forms, in the background, even in not so digitally advanced societies and governments, like the ones in the Balkans region.

One of the examples of a narrow intelligence would be in the currently ongoing vaccination process in Serbia. You enter your name, citizen ID and preferred city, and a simple algorithm sets the first available date and matches you with the vaccination location, and then automates the communication with medical institutions and medical staff. Similar efforts have been done in other countries in the region, such as North Macedonia, but they are much less automated.

Smart use of algorithms in the Western Balkans governments can be found in the public e-procurement systems, professional and career advising, digital management of internal processes and procedures, detecting tax fraud, etc. AI elements can also be found in the judiciary. In North Macedonia, Automated Court Case Management Information System (ACCMIS) has been used since 2010 in all 34, replacing the manual distribution of cases. Its database is located at the Supreme Court and can be accessed by members of the Judicial Council and the presidents of the Basic Courts. As there have been many instances in the past where its usage was neglected, in the 2020 Report by the European Commission, one of the main recommendations for the Judiciary and fundamental rights (Chapter 23) in 2021 is to improve this system to ensure its full functionality and reliability.

The “alGOVrithms – State of play” and “alGOVrithms 2.0 – The State of Play” publications list some of the automated decision-making examples in Serbia, North Macedonia and Kosovo, and present policy recommendations for decision-makers to make it better, more accountable, and more fair.

What is the government after all?

Like any other organization, the government is a group of people, the system that governs a state or a community. They do numerous little tasks every day, following the established and well-defined rules and procedures, with the intention to serve the public and citizens.

We could probably say that there are at least two parts to it. The first one (decision-makers, public officials) is political, which makes decisions, strategies, and policies, while the second one is more technical, professional. The second (the civil servants) is more “operative” – they identify, track, communicate requests and approvals, manage resources, do the calculations, give permissions, etc. If you look at it more deeply, you would probably figure out that so many of the tasks done within the government and public sector are repetitive and logical steps.

Did, let’s call him Filip, pay taxes? If not, when should he be notified? How much should he pay? What message should be sent to him, and what instruction? All this information exists in different systems and databases. If all of the data was digital and interconnected, a computer system boosted with powerful algorithms could automate large parts of the processes like that. Register a car, prove ownership, start a company, or notarize valuable documents – so many of those functions can be automated and outsourced to computers. With a little help from advanced algorithms, governments and citizens can save so many hours and spend their valuable time doing more important things.

What happens when we apply AI technologies in government and public sector operations?

Why sum or divide large numbers by hand on a piece of paper, when you have a calculator? That’s probably the adequate analogy for many potential cases.

The Western Balkan countries are not part of the EU which has many different repercussions. One of them is how we pass borders at airports. Although we can move around freely thanks to “White Schengen”, we still wait in long lines at the airport. At some airports, EU citizens can just pass by showing their passports to the machine and looking at the camera. How is this possible? There is a shared database of faces and algorithms powered by facial recognition tech. Computer systems recognize your face and are smart to read your travel documents, so you can just continue walking. “Voila!” Borders can be extremely frustrating, so imagine how solutions like this one can minimize unnecessary human “suffering”.

What about some other examples of AI use in the government and public sector? Let’s get back to Estonia, our honorable mentions from the beginning of the article, where the government’s goal is to enable a ‘zero bureaucracy’ experience. How does Estonia use AI in delivering in public services?

One of the really cool things they will unroll soon are #KrattAI AI voice assistants. Soon, Estonian citizens will be able to register companies by talking to their phones which will understand human language and be equipped to flawlessly navigate the whole registration process.

AI can help unemployed people as well. In one AI application, a machine learning system matches recently unemployed people with employees based on their skills. Resumes are fed into a system that matches their skills with potential employers. Computer-matching systems made an improvement: 72 percent of workers who got a job through the system are still on the job after six months, compared to 58 percent before the system was deployed.

There is this one very interesting example using satellite imagery and deep learning technique. European Space Agency satellites are used for inspection of farmers who receive government subsidies to cut their hayfields instead of physical inspection. Deep learning algorithms analyze imagery pixels to determine what’s happening on the ground, without the need for regular inspection visits. This system saved €665,000 of the public money in its first year. More about how the systems work can be learned in this presentation.

Let’s go to the other part of the world, China, Asia.

One of the interesting concepts to note is augmented intelligence. To put it briefly, it’s a human-machine collaboration, where machine intelligence fuels and enhances human decisions.

Shenzhen, China, is one of tech capitals of the world. The city partnered with many private companies to implement sensors and smart cameras everywhere. Transportation is never late and everything is almost perfectly optimized using computer algorithms.

“Smart city brain” of LOC in Shenzhen

Data is streamlined to and analyzed by a big artificial “City Brain”. It’s then all visualized in a human-friendly way so government employees can use this superpower to oversee all the relevant dynamics at glance. There’s literally no way for a human to do all that math. Machines do it in milliseconds. Optimization and performance are at the maximum. A lot of great studies are written on AI in China, many of which raise concerns about surveillance and control.

Some Chinese-style facilitation recognition technology is also used in Belgrade, Serbia. Whilst promising for public safety, if implemented without appropriate rules around it that protect privacy, it can be dangerous. One study analyzes this system and its potential dangers in Serbia. In other Western Balkans countries, these systems aren’t in place so far.

It’s a long road to any of the systems briefly presented above, packed with brave ideas, tons of testing and experimentation, security audits, impact assessments, research on potential biases, policy initiatives and changes, and improvements of regulatory and legal environments.

All AI systems require tons of quality data, digitized, and machine-readable data. Setting this up takes years. High-quality public-private partnerships are necessary because the most advanced skills and state-of-the-art technologies are built by private companies. All the examples of AI use in the public sector are designed and implemented in some sort of public-private partnership. Of course, nothing important and large scale isn’t possible without the knowledge, skills, and openness of decision-makers. Not to mention legal requirements, security concerns, and accountability issues. It’s a long, strategic, decisive and comprehensive course of action.

A wild and automated future is definitely ahead

“Innovation” and “digitalization” are keywords in most of the governments in the world, and the so-called “GovTech” market is booming. The $400 billion #GovTech market (Gartner) is full of startups and other companies doing technologies for the government, improving many aspects of it. Some estimates say it will hit a trillion dollars by 2025. When something is that big of a market, it means there’s a whole ecosystem around, made of entrepreneurs, investors, academia, experts, and even specific media. Many actors are pushing for the change. This means that innovation doesn’t just come from within the government, but is also pitched almost every day by tech innovators from all over the world.

Two relevant trends to think about, instead of a conclusion. It’s important to understand where the world is headed because it will change anyway. These trends also represent great opportunities for us to improve how we do things, including how governments serve the needs of their citizens.

Technology is developed at an extremely high pace. There’s so much money in the technology industry because everyone understands the market potential and its impact of it. All the biggest companies in the world right now are technology companies and that probably won’t change ever.

Consumer habits and consumer demand also change. If AI is possible in our day-to-day lives, why isn’t it in the government? Citizens are consumers of government services, and they can and should demand better. If you can register a new company in Estonia online in minutes, or even vote online, why isn’t that happening elsewhere as well?

Having just those two trends in mind, we can expect a lot of fun and radical improvements in the way governments work in the following years and decades. We have just started. And while many of the examples just briefly touched on above might seem futuristic for countries in the Western Balkans region, a lot of local innovators are already thinking about stuff like that. The IT technology sector, being one of the strongest and most vibrant parts of the Western Balkans region economy, can play a huge role in this forthcoming transformation. A lot of international organizations are also funding, nurturing, and guiding government transformation and innovation in the region, European Union and ICEDA network being just a little piece in a big puzzle of a better, digitized future where things are smarter, cheaper, easier, and more life-friendly.

Note: the article was written for the ICEDA educational series and is originally published on the Metamorphosis website at this link

Random Thoughts: “Get the Fucking Money” / Chamath

Random Thoughts: “Get the Fucking Money” / Chamat 

Money is one of the most consequential inventions. It makes the world go round; It’s used to fund space exploration, do fundamental scientific research, and build brave products that change the world. Sure, it’s directly connected to so many shitstorms at the same time, being the driver of so many “instrumental evils” when people will do nasty stuff to acquire it. They would also use it as an antidote to moral rules and civil behavior, to buy themselves justice, privilege, and other exemptions.

It is the instrument with the capital “i”. Like any other technology, it’s mostly about how it’s used.  By having it more, you can either solve a big problem you care about deeply, or become a terrible, corrupted person.

From the government and citizens’ perspective, it enables prosperity. More money means more taxes, a more vibrant economy and dynamic markets, more innovations, better science, and countless other things.

Wealthier people live longer and happier lives. Check this famous graph:


https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy 

It can’t buy happiness and friends and it would be wrong to center everything around it – it’s a tool – but it can change the world and solve so many problems. r.  

Not having it? Some research suggests it even lowers the IQ! This is an interesting talk:


Poverty reduction, thus, should be one of the key priorities of our civilization.

Effective Altruism

I stumbled upon effective altruism a few years ago. Effective altruism is all about using reason to produce the best for the world. What should you focus on if you care about the world?

If searching for a new job or thinking about transitioning, check their career section, “jobs that are tackling the world’s most pressing problems”.

My immediate response when I first encountered it was, naturally, to think about myself and my actions and decisions. I consider myself an activist, trying to make the world a better place. Are my approaches wrong?

Let’s get hypothetical. 

So X decides to influence Serbian/Algerian/Korean society as much as he or she can. He/she decides to put it all on paper, to visualize it, and think it through. Let’s say that he/she cares about X the most. It doesn’t matter why X cares about Y, it’s probably very personal.

After some deep thinking, X realizes that it would be the most effective to earn 7 figures, become a multi-millionaire, and put that money in the work for cause Y in this way or another.

While the probability might be low, if he/she does even 20% of it, it’s still a better use of time than struggling to promote the Y cause directly.  It’s just a 10-15 year-long hack.

Have you ever tried to anyhow measure your impact? It’s an interesting exercise.

What I truly love about this sort of thinking is that you can count a lot. You, as an individual, can influence the world directly.

Some other girl, let’s call her Z, is a writer. She does more with words, touching hearts in a beautiful way than she can do with money. So she writes. 

Chamat P

Chamath Palihapitiya is one of the most prominent people in Silicon Valley at this point.

His story, in short, if I understood correctly:

  • A refugee (Sri Lanka) in Canada
  • United States of America, tech: Winamp 
  • AOL, product (youngest VP)
  • The first senior person in FB in charge of growth (up to almost a billion users). Fat equity and “billion-dollar club”
  • Venture capitalist
  • Some of the investments, private + fund: Bitcoin (100 thousand pieces), Tesla (almost 10 times growth), Amazon (almost 10 times growth), Slack (10% of the company -> $2.8 billion), Golden State Warriors (4-5 x) etc.

This is a great article with many great anecdotes.

And this is the main video reference:


What is the assumption?

If money is important as the instrument for < whatever >, it’s about in which direction it flows. If it’s to be made anyway, it’s much better and effective to decide on where it goes. The world is an open playground, with constant power dynamics, and money is what makes the difference. Get it. It’s OK, you as well should become the “capital allocator”. Care about refugees or homeless people? Fund the cause. Advocate for different policies, but add some money on the top.

I am amazed how financially illiterate most of the population is and how financial skills are not evenly distributed. It should be taught from kindergarten. Inequality is often a consequence! I am talking from personal experience. Of course, it’s also about empowerment. No matter where you start – you can fly.  

A bigger picture?

I also loved the idea of giving a certain percentage of your monthly income to what you believe needs to be done. I am considering it, although I wouldn’t say that I am rich. I am thinking of establishing this as a regular practice. Sure, you pay taxes, and that surely does a thing. But you can do much more, proactively. It doesn’t have to be much. Even 3-5 percent can work. What do you care about the most? You don’t have to volunteer for the cause and donate your time. Money is also fine.

Instead of a conclusion: “get the fucking money” is a call to action to think about it as an instrument for desired change, whatever it might be. 

Random Thoughts: A Few Reflections on Evil

So many evils in this world are banal. That random, short and curly blonde driver contributing to the holocaust from a far side, an ordinary husband with two kids, it’s not his fault and responsibility, he’s just another brick in the wall. He doesn’t know what is driving, he doesn’t even care. He’s in love. He’s not a killer, he doesn’t have a gun, or a knife in his pocket, he doesn’t carry a sadistic smile, he’s just driving, from point A to point B, to be able to feed his kiddies and surprise his wife with a rose. When working, he’s on autopilot. Otherwise, the whole neighborhood adores him because he’s a great pal, always there to help however he cans. If you are not already familiar with Hannah Arendt’s work on the banality of evil, I believe you should take a look. One of my favorite books, “A Philosophy of Evil” by Lars Svendsen, delves into many different kinds of evil. If you don’t want to read the whole book, which I would definitely recommend, you can read this summary article on four types of evil. He argues, for example, that there are no demonic evils, evils for their own sake. Terrorists don’t enjoy it when babies or uncles cry. It doesn’t make them horny. They do it for the cause. 

                       ***                                                          

I am strictly interested in evils that are banal here and now. It’s so sad that people act evil even though they’re not evil per se (whatever that might mean), not even willful in doing X. How to minimize those behaviors, and downplay evils themselves?

People too often don’t think about others, that’s obvious. For a variety of reasons. Let’s imagine an extreme case: heroin addict(s). Addiction is so strong that literally nothing else matters. “Nothing else matters”. Quite literally. Not that I have a personal experience, but that’s what I’ve managed to learn reading and listening. Mum’s TV, or fathers hearth treatment, or sisters rent, or life-long friends in need…  They’re not on the radar. The whole abandonment  “process” is extremely dehumanizing, on so many levels.  

Ego. I rewatched “Revolver” a few weeks ago, one of the most wicked, and many would argue the weakest of Guy Richie’s movies. With a movie comes a video afterthought on ego and some aspects of it.

People’s need to protect their own egos knows no boundaries. They will lie, cheat, steal, kill, do whatever it takes, to maintain what we call the “ego boundaries”.

Self-defense. Ego self-defense. Response to humiliation and shame.

Pause and think about the video for a second.

Or, take for example misinformation campaigns, which we falsely think are just today’s problem. Propaganda machines are in full speed, kind of forever, much before social media. There is obviously an intention to make a mess, but oftentimes there’s no direct orchestration. Triggering, as in the most sophisticated nudge theories, leads to violence and death. Collateral damage can be counted in thousands, hundreds, even millions of evils that spread like the Coronavirus pandemic.

How to minimize banal evils in this world? 

Mechanisms of evil can be quite bizarre and advanced, at the same time. Tyrants “outsource” them. They, say, spread disgusting and dangerous narratives and lies and people kill each other, or in some “more polite” cases just hurt each other, for their absolute, installed interest. They’re not doing it directly. Some other folks are on the court. They’re above it. Drinking expensive whiskeys and smoking cigars, to paint the scenery better, while people are massacring each other. Sometimes, though, they construct narratives so strong that they believe them. Or that’s always the case, as Svensen would probably argue.

Bureaucracies can be the worst instruments of evil, in both clear and “banal” ways. Their nature is neutral, they follow and execute orders, not think about them, many theories of state and governance would point out. I had so many experiences with Serbian bureaucracy that I could classify as some sort of evil, exactly the banal type. Administrators playing nonsense games, not aware of emerging stupidies, which sometimes become evil. These stupidities can sometimes even lead to death. Procedural priority, however stupid, over reason and empathy. Repeat function can go on, forever. 

An “evil designer” could, thus, construct pyramids and the whole architecture of evil. They remain evil geniuses, above, others do the harm. Nasty. The sad part is that there are a lot of professionals in this area. Think of PR people, spin masters, and others who engineer psyches. So-called “dark arts”. It’s an economy. 

Or playing on fear. You frighten people to death, thousands of ways to do that, and incentivize them psychologically to hurt each other. Yet again, tyrannical and despotic environments. And some sort of design. And nudge. Instrumental or cause motivations –  injections – and a widespread that becomes banal when masses join.                                                                

                                                                                                                                            ***

A bit offtopic, or maybe not. I heard this sad story several months ago. A local restaurant owner, in a small rural place in Serbia, is bullied into paying mob tax every month. He’s blackmailed, they would hurt his family, unfortunately, a classical story. I mean, it’s a self-evident act of evil. Guy agrees to pay them after a while and invites them to give them the cash. Instead, he kills them both with a shotgun. Kept me wondering about the narrative playing in the minds of those mobsters? They somehow thought it was their right to take the money from the poor, unprotected guy. What’s happening in their heads? Were they afraid of their boss, prioritizing their personal debts? Were they blackmailed too? Is it just mimicking what others are doing, and is therefore OK?

How to tackle this? What are the most efficient strategies societies can take? I don’t see any approaches that aren’t centered around emphasizing personal responsibility and highlighting a set of virtues around it. Education matters, not just education that is learned in schools, but even more importantly peer-to-peer education that happens in our everyday interactions with others. Awareness also matters so much. It’s incredible how dangerously ignorant we are as a whole. Empathy is a collective superpower.